alexa Biomarker Review Articles Journals | OMICS International | Epidemiology: Open Acces

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Biomarker

Although tobacco smoking has been shown to be significantly associated with many CRDs, evidence linking secondhand tobacco smoke exposure to different CRDs is inconsistent, especially with low levels of SHS exposure. Research on the health effects of SHS exposure pose a particular challenge due to the tools used to measure SHS exposure. For example, it has been shown that self-report of SHS exposure can be inaccurate, frequently underestimating SHS exposure. One type of measurement tool designed to increase the accuracy of a subject’s SHS exposure, particularly at low levels of SHS exposure, are biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure. Thus, robust studies investigating associations between SHS exposure and CRDs frequently include both self-report as well as objective biomarker measurements to verify or quantify such exposures. The two most recent incarnations of the NHANES series, the NHANES III and the continuous NHANES, include serum biomarker data of tobacco smoke exposure which create both significant advantages as well as complications for research using data from this study. We review both NHANES studies regarding survey design and data available. John D. Clark III, Utilization of the National Health and Nutrition Examination (NHANES) Survey for Symptoms, Tests, and Diagnosis of Chronic Respiratory Diseases and Assessment of Second hand Smoke Exposure. Review articles are the summary of current state of understanding on a particular research topic. They analyze or discuss research previously published by scientist and academicians rather than reporting novel research results. Review article comes in the form of systematic reviews and literature reviews and are a form of secondary literature. Systematic reviews determine an objective list of criteria, and find all previously published original research papers that meet the criteria. They then compare the results presented in these papers. Literature reviews, by contrast, provide a summary of what the authors believe are the best and most relevant prior publications. The concept of "review article" is separate from the concept of peer-reviewed literature. It is possible for a review to be peer-reviewed, and it is possible for a review to be non-peer-reviewed.
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Last date updated on September, 2014

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