Stenosis means narrowing of an opening, such as a heart valve. Stenosis of the mitral valve limits the forward flow of blood from the left atrium to the left ventricle. This may cause a back-up of blood and fluid in the lungs. Mitral stenosis most commonly develops many years after a person has had rheumatic fever, although many patients diagnosed with mitral stenosis don't recall ever having the illness.
Causes: Diagnosed with mitral stenosis don’t recall ever having the illness. During rheumatic fever, the valve becomes Mitral stenosis most commonly develops many years after a person has had rheumatic fever, although many patients inflamed. Over time, the leaflets of the inflamed valve stick together and become scarred, rigid and thickened, limiting its ability to open completely.
\Symptoms: Many of the symptoms of mitral stenosis, such as shortness of breath and fatigue, result from a back-up of blood in the lungs. Other symptoms of mitral stenosis may include quick weight gain; weakness; dizziness; swelling in the ankles, feet and/or abdomen (edema); and/or heart palpitations (irregular heartbeat).
Treatment :A balloon valvotomy is the preferred treatment for mitral valve stenosis. It is a procedure that widens the mitral valve so that blood flows more easily through the heart. A balloon valvotomy is a minimally invasive procedure. A doctor uses a thin flexible tube (catheter) that is inserted through an artery in the groin or arm and threaded into the heart. When the tube reaches the narrowed mitral valve, a balloon device located on the tip of the catheter is quickly inflated. The narrowed or fused mitral valve leaflets are separated and stretched open as the balloon presses against them. This process increases the size of the mitral valve opening and allows more blood to flow from the left atrium into the left ventricle.
Statistics: The mean follow-up time was 7.3 +/- 1.4 years. After adjustment for baseline characteristics by the propensity score method, there was a statistically significant survival benefit for the patients who underwent MVP (p = 0.02). Risk factors for death were preoperative unstable angina pectoris (relative risk ratio, 4.4; 95% confidence interval, 2.2 to 8.8), age older than 60 years (relative risk ratio, 1.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 1.1), use of mitral prosthesis (relative risk ratio, 2.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.4 to 5.3), preoperative renal insufficiency (relative risk ratio, 1.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 1.007), and preoperative cerebrovascular disorder (relative risk ratio, 2.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.0 to 5.3). The quality of life of the MVP and MVR groups did not differ from each other, but the MVP and the MVR patients had lower energy and mobility scores than an age- and sex-matched reference population. The 30-day postoperative mortality rate was 10.0% (n = 18); rates were 7.1% after MVRep and 20.5% after MVR (p = 0.013). The additive EuroSCORE (p <0.0001, area under the ROC curve: 0.804, 95% CI 0.689-0.919, SE 0.059), as well as logistic EuroSCORE (p <0.0001, area under the ROC curve: 0.806, 95% CI 0.695-0.918, SE 0.057) were predictors of 30-day postoperative death. The 10-year overall survival rate from any cause of death was 74.7%. Additive and logistic EuroSCOREs were significantly higher in the MVR group compared to the MVRep group (p <0.0001 in both cases), and also among operative survivors. Patients who underwent MVR had a significantly poorer long-term survival than those with MVRep (p = 0.01). Both the additive EuroSCORE (p <0.0001) and logistic EuroSCORE (p = 0.003) were predictors of late, all-cause mortality. Both scores remained significant predictors of late outcome also when adjusted for type of surgery (MVRep versus MVR). Survival was particularly dismal in patients with an additive EuroSCORE >6 (at 10 years, 54.4% versus 86.6%, p <0.00001) or a logistic EuroSCORE >4% (at 10 years, 58.7% versus 86.6%, p <0.00001).