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Contact Dermatitis

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  • Contact Dermatitis


    Contact dermatitis or eczema is a polymorphic inflammation of the skin. It occurs at the site of contact with irritating or antigenic substances. In the acute phase there is occurrence of itching erythema, papules, and vesicles, whereas in the chronic phase there is dryness, hyperkeratosis, and sometimes fissures. Contact dermatitis can be divided into irritant and allergic types. Allergic contact dermatitis is a type-IV T-cell-mediated reaction occurring in a sensitized individual after contact with the antigen/allergen. Such antigens are usually low molecular weight substances (MW approximately 500), called haptens; 3000 contact allergens are known. The diagnosis of contact allergy is made on the basis of the history, clinical findings, and a positive epicutancous test result. Allergic, but not irritative, contact dermatitis can spread beyond the area of contact to other body parts. Eczematous lesions are characterized by a mononuclear infiltrate consisting mainly of T cells in the dermis and epidermis, together with an intercellular epidermal edema that is. spongiosis.


    One of the most important steps in treating contact dermatitis is identifying and avoiding the allergens or irritants that affect you. If you can successfully avoid or reduce your exposure to the cause, you shouldn't experience any symptoms. It's not always easy to avoid irritants or allergens that affect you, but your GP or dermatologist (a specialist in treating skin conditions) can find ways to minimise your contact with them. If you are exposed to irritants as part of your job, wear adequate protective clothing to minimise any contact. Tell your employer about your condition, so they can help you avoid the causes as much as possible.

  • Contact Dermatitis

    Major research on disease:

    Contact dermatitis is an eczematous eruption caused by external agents, which can be broadly divided into irritant substances that have a direct toxic effect on the skin (irritant contact dermatitis, ICD) and allergic chemicals where immune delayed hypersensitivity reactions occur (allergic contact dermatitis, ACD). Contact urticaria is an immediate reaction from exposure to a substance and is mediated by either irritant or immunological mechanisms; it can resemble ICD but the onset is immediate and short lived. Many allergenic chemicals are also irritants and it is thought that ICD enhances the development of ACD.

    Disease Statistics:

    A total of 2543 cases of occupational ACD were reported during 1991-1997. Cr caused 143 (5.6%) cases of ACD, Ni 176 cases (6.9%) and Co 41 cases (1.6%) of ACD. Women had greater number of occupational ACD from nickel, whereas occupational ACD from chromate and cobalt was more frequent in men. The ranking list of the IR of occupational ACD caused by Cr per 10,000 working years was (incidence rate in parenthesis) (1) tanners, fellmongers, and pelt dressers (12.20); (2) cast concrete product workers (6.94); (3) leather goods workers (4.71), (4) metal plating and coating workers (3.66); (5) bricklayers (3.44); (6) reinforcement concreters (2.79); and (7) building workers (1.32). The corresponding ranking list for Ni was (1) footwear workers (2.55); (2) machine and metal product assemblers (2.40); (3) electrical and teletechnical equipment assemblers (2.03); (4) precision instrument mechanics (1.73); (5) postal officials.

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