Dystonia is a neurological disorder due to sustained muscle contractions cause twisting and repetitive or abnormal movements. This condition is worsened by voluntary movements and they may overflow into adjacent muscles. This disorder may due to hereditary or other factors like physical trauma, infection etc.
Treatment may given to reduce involuntary movements that provides some relief and also reduces stress through moderate exercise and relaxation techniques. Medications which positive results are diphenhydramine, benzatropine and also muscle relaxants like diazepam. Anticholoinergics acts as inhibitors of neurotransmittors. Mainly muscle relaxants like clonazepam an anti-seizure medicine sometimes prescribed.
The reflex abnormalities may contribute to the difficulties in voluntary movements but cannot be causal as they can occur outside the clinically involved territory. Abnormalities of cortical and basal ganglia function have been described in functional imaging and neurophysiological studies of patients with dystonia and in animal models of primary dystonia. Functional imaging of the brain in primary dystonia has suggested reduced pallidal inhibition of the thalamus with consequent over activity of medial and prefrontal cortical areas and under activity of the primary motor cortex during movements.
The crude incidence of generalized dystonia was 2 per million persons per year, and for all focal dystonias combined, 24 per million per year. The crude prevalence rate was 34 per million persons for generalized dystonia and 295 per million persons for all focal dystonias. Late-onset focal primary dystonia was 10 times more common than early-onset generalized primary torsion dystonia.