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Endometriosis is a disease in which the tissues that generally grow inside the uterus, starts growing outside the uterine wall. This results in pelvic pain and infertility. It has social as well as psychological effects. This can occur either due to genetic factors or may be due to diet and nutrition. Endometriosis is estimated to occur in roughly 6-10% of women. It is most common in those in their thirties and forties. It results in few deaths with this being estimated at 200 globally in 2013. Endometriosis was first determined to be a separate condition in the 1920s. Endometrial cells implanted ectopically respond to cyclical changes in estrogen and progesterone with proliferation and secretion. Their presence in extrauterine areas can initiate immune and inflammatory responses that lead to pain and peritoneal adhesions, and may interfere with fertility. Its treatment includes oral intake of drugs such as naproxen, surgery, hormonal treatments, pain medication, intake of birth control pill, etc.