Osteomalacia is the softening of the bones caused by defective bone mineralization secondary to inadequate levels of available phosphate and calcium, or because of overactive resorption of calcium from the bone which can be caused by hyperparathyroidism (which causes hypercalcemia). Osteomalacia in children is known as rickets, and because of this, use of the term "osteomalacia" is often restricted to the milder, adult form of the disease. Signs and symptoms can include diffuse body pains, muscle weakness, and fragility of the bones.The total number of hip fractures increased by 70% within a 10-year period (1992-2002) .
The most common cause of osteomalacia is a deficiency of vitamin D, which is normally derived from sunlight exposure and, to a lesser extent, from the diet. The most specific screening test for vitamin D deficiency in otherwise healthy individuals is a serum 25(OH)D level. Less common causes of osteomalacia can include hereditary deficiencies of vitamin D or phosphate (which would typically be identified in childhood) or malignancy. vitamins D2 and D3 have been viewed as equivalent to each other, though some minimal new studies have suggested that vitamin D3 is completely convincing. A late overview recommended that there's no qualification between the sufficiency of vitamin D2 or D3 when taken as a tablet.