Language is a uniquely human faculty that allows us to communicate with each other through the use of words. A language impairment caused by a brain disease is known as an " aphasia." Progressive language difficulties in word-finding, word usage, word order, word comprehension or word spelling lead to a diagnosis of PPA. Each individual with PPA has a different pattern of impairment.
Similar robust clinicopathological correlations are reported by a longitudinal study which investigated 18 patients of PPA over a 15 year period and classified PPA into 5 different types. Patients with pure dysarthria had tau pathology (CBD, PSP, and pick's disease), agrammatics and typical SD had an ubiquitin positive TDP-43 proteinopathy, jargon and logopenic PPA had AD and atypical SD had CBD or argyrophilic grain disease.
A neurological examination is done to determine if there are signs of dementia on a simple screening of mental functions (the mental status examination) and also if there are signs of motor or sensory symptoms that indicate other types of neurological disorders might be causing the dementia. The neurologist will also order tests (e.g., blood tests, spinal tap, brain imaging studies) to further investigate the cause of the symptoms.
Major research on disease:
There are two basic approaches to speech therapy for PPA. One approach is to focus treatment directly on the language skills that are impaired (for example, skills to enhance word-retrieval abilities), and the other is to provide augmentative/alternative communication strategies or devices. both treatment approaches be used in people with PPA are recommended.