Stomach cancer, also called gastric cancer, is a cancer that starts in the stomach. To understand stomach cancer, it helps to know about the normal structure and function of the stomach. The most common cause is infection by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, which accounts for more than 60% of cases. Certain types of H. pylori have greater risks than others. Other common causes include eating pickled vegetables and smoking. Smoking increases the risk of developing gastric cancer significantly, from 40% increased risk for current smokers to 82% increase for heavy smokers.
Diagnosis is usually by biopsy done during endoscopy. This is then followed by medical imaging to determine if the disease has spread to other parts of the body. Japan and South Korea, two countries that have high rates of disease, screen for stomach cancer. Surgery remains the only curative therapy for stomach cancer. The pathologic examination of the resected specimen shows incomplete resection or deep invasion by tumor, the patient would need a formal stomach resection.
Finland and South or Central America as the reference group. Overall incidences were 9.1 (95% CI 8.8 to 9.5) per 100 000 person?years in the reference group (42 studies); 22.7 (95% CI 21.9 to 23.5) in Japan (seven studies); 19.7 (95% CI 18.1 to 21.3) in Finland (six studies); and 4.2 (95% CI 3.1 to 5.7) in South and Central America (three studies) (fig 2?2).). The incidence in Japan was 2.5 (95% CI 2.4 to 2.6) times higher than that of the reference region and in Finland 2.2 (95% CI 2.0 to 2.4) times higher, whereas the incidence in South and Central America was 2.2 (95% CI 1.6 to 2.9) times lower.