Adnexal tumors are growths that form on the organs and connective tissues around the uterus in women. Adnexal tumors are most often noncancerous (benign), but they can be cancerous (malignant).Adnexal tumors occur in the Ovaries, Fallopian tubes, Connective tissue around the ovaries or fallopian tubes. Diagnosis of adnexal tumors involves a careful physical exam, imaging tests and, sometimes, surgery. Treatment for adnexal tumors depends on the specific location and types of cells involved.
The pathophysiology is not well understood for most adnexal masses; however, some theories have been proposed. Functional cysts may be the result of variation in normal follicle formation. Mature cystic teratoma may be the result of abnormal germ cell proliferation. Endometriomas are thought to result from retrograde menstruation or coelomic metaplasia. The exact cause of epithelial neoplasms is unknown, but recent studies have suggested a complex series of molecular genetic changes is involved.
Epidemiological data on malignant fallopian tube tumors are adequate, even though only 0.3-1.1% of all gynecological malignancies are typically classified as primary fallopian tube carcinomas, mostly adenocarcinomas. In the U.S., the incidence is about 3.6 per million women per year. Stage-adjusted survival rates are generally better than for epithelial ovarian carcinoma .Underestimation of the real incidence might be due to fallopian tube carcinomas being mistaken for ovarian cancers which show a significantly higher prevalence. Still, Riska and colleagues reported an increasing incidence of fallopian tube carcinomas from 1.2 per million per year for 1953-1957 to 5.4 per million per year from 1993-1997 .