Echinococcosis, also Known as hydatid disease, hydatidosis, or echinococcal disease, is a parasitic disease of tapeworms of the Echinococcus type. Human echinococcosis is a parasitic disease caused by tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. The two most important forms of the disease in humans are cystic echinococcosis (hydatidosis) and alveolar echinococcosis. Humans are infected through ingestion of parasite eggs in contaminated food, water or soil, or through direct contact with animal hosts.
Echinococcosis is infection with larvae of Echinococcus granulosus or E. multilocularis (alveolar hydatid disease). E multilocularis larvae grow as tumorlike buds that transform into multiple vesicles filled with fluid and, in 15% of cases, with protoscoleces. The parasitic vesicles are lined with a germinal layer and a laminated layer, which are immediately surrounded by an exuberant granulomatous response generated by the host's immune system. This reaction has two main consequences:fibrosis and necrosis. Both reactions protect the host against larval growth but may also be deleterious.
Symptoms and signs:
Liver cysts eventually cause abdominal pain or a palpable mass. Jaundice may occur if the bile duct is obstructed. Rupture into the bile duct, peritoneal cavity, or lung may cause fever, urticaria, or a serious anaphylactic reaction. Pulmonary cysts can rupture, causing cough, chest pain, and hemoptysis.
Examination of cyst fluid
percutaneous treatment of the hydatid cysts with the PAIR (Puncture, Aspiration, Injection, Re-aspiration) technique, surgery, anti-infective drug treatment.