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Endometrial cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the uterus. The uterus is the hollow, pear-shaped pelvic organ in women where fetal development occurs. It begins in the layer of cells that form the lining (endometrium) of the uterus. Endometrial cancer is sometimes called uterine cancer.
In 10–20% of endometrial cancers, mostly Grade 3 (the highest histologic grade), mutations are found in a tumor suppressor gene (p53 or PTEN). In 20% of endometrial hyperplasias and 50% of endometrioid cancers, PTEN suffers a loss of function mutation or a null mutation, making it less effective or ineffective. Loss of PTEN function leads to up-regulation of the PI3k/Akt/mTOR pathway, which causes cell growth. The p53 pathway can either be suppressed or highly activated in endometrial cancer. When a mutant version of p53 is overexpressed, the cancer tends to be particularly aggressive.
Bleeding or discharge not related to menstruation (periods).
Difficult or painful urination.
Pain during sexual intercourse.
Pain in the pelvic area.
Extremely long, heavy, or frequent episodes of vaginal bleeding after age 40.
Thin white or clear vaginal discharge after menopause.
Dilatation and curettage
Trans-vaginal ultrasound exam CT scan (CAT scan)
Treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Surgery to remove the uterus (hysterectomy) may be done in women with early stage 1 cancer. The doctor may also recommend removing the tubes and ovaries. Surgery combined with radiation therapy is another treatment option. It is often used for women with • Stage 1 disease that has a high chance of returning, has spread to the lymph nodes, or is a grade 2 or 3. • Stage 2 disease. Chemotherapy or hormonal therapy may be considered in some cases, most often for those with stage 3 and 4 disease.