Haemoglobinopathy is a kind of genetic defect that results in abnormal structure of one of the globin chains of thehemoglobinmolecule. Hemoglobinopathies are inherited single-gene disorders; in most cases, they are inherited as autosomal co-dominant traits. Common hemoglobinopathies include sickle-cell disease. It is estimated that 7% of world's population (420 million) are carriers, with 60% of total and 70% pathological being in Africa.
Haemoglobin Functions :Transport of oxygen from the lungs to the tissues. This is due to the peculiar cooperation of the globin chains that allows the molecule to take in more oxygen where there is increased oxygen and to release oxygen in low concentration of oxygen.Transport of carbondioxide: from the tissue to the lungs.the end product of tissue metabolism is acidic which increases the hydrogen ion in solution. the hydrogen ion combines with bicarbonates to produce.
Statistics: Major Haemoglobinopathies (MH), mainly thalassaemia syndromes (Thal) and sickle cell disease (SCD) are rare genetic blood disorders that affect more than 330,000 newborns every year worldwide. From these, about 70% suffer from SCD, and the remaining, from severe forms of Thal . The World Health Organization (WHO) has stressed that haemoglobinopathies are a growing health problem in 71% of 229 countries, which account for 89% of all births worldwide, mostly in low and middle income countries.