In 1861, the French physician Prosper Meniere described a condition which now bears his name. Meniere’s disease is a disorder of the inner ear that causes episodes of vertigo, ringing in the ears (tinnitus), a feeling of fullness or pressure in the ear, and fluctuating hearing loss.
The area of the ear affected is the entire labyrinth, which includes both the semicircular canals and the cochlea. Immune-mediated mechanisms have long been implicated in the pathophysiology of MD. This has been supported by the presence of increased levels of immune complexes and the presence of auto-antibodies to structures of the inner ear in patients with MD.
The prevalence of Meniere's disease obtained in this investigation was 43.2 per 100,000 (95 % CI 37.6−49.6) at the end of 1996. The prevalence for the three southern hospitals varied from 31.7 to 54 per 100,000, with an average of 38 per 100,000, and northern hospitals ranged from 29.9 to 56.2 per 100,000 with an average of 49.3 per 100,000, respectively.
The condition can however be managed to some degree through medication, diet, stress reduction, exercise programs, natural therapies and as a last resort, surgery. There are treatment options for the acute attack of vertigo as well as options for the symptoms experienced and prevention of further attacks."
Major research on disease:
Association between MIF gene variation and Meniere's disease.Lymphocytes and immunoglobulins have also been found in the endolymphatic sac.Currently there is no known medical cure for Meniere’s.The averages for the university (tertiary level) and central hospitals (secondary level) were almost equal, 44.2 and 42.1 per 100,000, respectively.