Pathophysiology: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a bacterium responsible for several difficult-to-treat infections in humans. It is also called oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. MRSA is especially troublesome in hospitals, prisons, and nursing homes, where patients with open wounds, invasive devices, and weakened immune systems are at greater risk of nosocomial infection than the general public.S. aureus most commonly colonizes under the anterior nares.
Statistics: The first cases of isolation of Staphylococcus aureus resistant to methicillin in France were published in 1962. Among the 94,605 hospitalized patients included in the study, 0.45% (427) developed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections, the incidence rate ranging from 0% to 1.2%. Thirty-four percent of MRSA-infected patients were 80 years old or older, 30% had been transferred from another service and 19% from another hospital, 56% were hospitalized at least once during the previous year.
Treatment: Treatment for MRSA will depends up on the how prevalence it is and also on the type of the infection caused. Mostly Treatment options for MRSA skin and soft tissue infections may include ClindamycinTetracycline drugs, Doxycycline and Minocycline,Trimethoprim and Sulfamethoxazole, Rifampin and Linezolid.
Major Research: An entirely different approach is phage therapy (e.g., at the Eliava Institute in Georgia). Experimental phage therapy tested in mice had a reported efficacy against up to 95% of tested Staphylococcus isolates.It has been reported that maggot therapy to clean out necrotic tissue of MRSA infection has been successful. Studies in diabetic patients reported significantly shorter treatment times than those achieved with standard treatments.