Pathophysiology: Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) is a form of tuberculosis caused by bacteria that are resistant to some of the most effective anti-TB drugs. XDR-TB strains have arisen after the mismanagement of individuals with multidrug-resistant TB. One in three people in the world is infected with TB bacteria. Only when the bacteria become active do people become ill with TB. Bacteria become active as a result of anything that can reduce the person immunity.
Statistics: Incidence of tuberculosis is the estimated number of new and relapse tuberculosis cases arising in a given year, expressed as the rate per 100,000 population. All forms of TB are included, including cases in people living with HIV. In France the incidence of Tuberculosis reported from 2001-2005 is 9 cases, and from 2006-2015 is also reported as 9 cases.
Treatment: Community-based treatment programs such as DOTS-Plus, a MDR-TB-specialized treatment using the popular Directly Observed Therapy – Short Course (DOTS) initiative, have shown considerable success in the treatment of MDR-TB in some parts of the world. In these locales, these programs have proven to be a good option for proper treatment of MDR-TB in poor, rural areas. A successful example has been in Lima, Peru, where the program has seen cure rates of over 80%.
Major Research: In France, research and development for tuberculosis is highly concentrated in the area of basic research. While the country’s contributions in this area are considerable, the French TB R&D community is fragmented and shies away from taking a multidisciplinary approach. Furthermore, a chronic lack of translational research prevents findings from basic research to be applied and deliver concrete outputs.