Prolactinoma is a condition in which a usually noncancerous tumor (adenoma) of the pituitary gland in your brain overproduces the hormone prolactin. The major effect of increased prolactin is a decrease in levels of some sex hormones-estrogen in women and testosterone in men. Prolactinoma is one of several types of tumors that can develop in your pituitary gland.
Pathophysiology: Tumor formation is due to neoplastic transformation of anterior pituitary lactotrophs, resulting in excess synthesis and secretion of prolactin (PRL). Linkage to aryl hydrocarbon-interacting protein gene (AIP) mutation has been identified in some families with prolactinoma and in childhood-onset pituitary adenomas.
Symptoms: When prolactin levels get increased there will be no periods, milk production will occur (infrequent in men), loss of axillary and pubic hair and Small gonads, gynecomastia, erectile dysfunction (in males). When there is mass effect then, bitemporal hemianopsia (due to pressure on optic chiasm), vertigo, nausea, vomiting are the symptoms.