Stuttering is an interruption of the normal flow of speech, which takes on many different patterns. Commonly, it involves either saying a string of repeated sounds or making abnormal pauses during speech. In early childhood, stuttering is sometimes part of normal speech development. In fact, about 5% of all young children go through a brief period of stuttering when they are learning to talk. Stuttering typically is first noticed between the ages of 2 and 5. It usually goes away on its own within a matter of months. In a small number of children (around 1%), stuttering continues and may get worse. Boys are more likely to stutter than girls. Researchers still are trying to determine why stuttering occurs. It runs in families, and genetic (inherited) factors probably play a larger part than previously recognized. Some studies suggest the problem may be due to subtle changes in the brain pathways that process speech and language.
According to some experts, this is because speaking and singing often come from opposite sides of the brain, especially in right-handed people. Although episodes of stuttering speech are usually easy to recognize, a diagnosis of true stuttering should always be made by a professional. If you are concerned that your child seems to be stuttering, talk with your child's doctor. Occasionally, the doctor may refer you to a speech-language pathologist for further evaluation. As part of your child's evaluation, the speech-language pathologist usually will ask questions about your child's history, including development, behavior and school performance.
The purpose of this article was to describe the serotype incidence and antibiotic susceptibility of strains isolated from adults and children with invasive disease (IPD) or acute otitis media (AOM) before introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine. During 2009, 494 strains of S. isolated were collected. Complete serotyping by latex antisera and molecular methods was performed. The most frequent serotypes isolated from children with IPD were 1 (26.2%), 19A (25%) and 7F (14.3%).