Trench fever, infectious disease characterized by sudden onset with fever; headache; sore muscles, bones, and joints; and outbreaks of skin lesions on the chest and back. It is transmitted from one person to another by a body louse harbouring the causative organism, the rickettsial bacterium Rochalimaea (formerly Rickettsia) quintana. 2.3% of female population self-reported having Trench fever in France 2001. It was common during World War I but is now rare. Also called 5-day fever, quintana fever.
Initial management of severe Bartonella infections, including trench fever and urban trench fever, may require inpatient management. Generally, the consolidation phase of treatment can be provided on an outpatient basis. Scientists are also studying the Bartonella to understand which factors are responsible for transmitting the bacteria to humans. Researchers are investigating how the bacteria replicates itself and the structure of the bacteria. Some people may be genetically susceptible to develop more severe symptoms than other people.