|Dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role in regulating T cell-mediated immune responses. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) including CD4+and CD8+ Tregs play an essential role in induction of immune tolerance in vivo. Apoptotic T cell-treated DCs express CD40, CD80, CD86 and MHC class II at low levels compared with those on DCs co-cultured with fresh T cells. Treatment of DCs with apoptotic T cells inhibits production of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-12 and IL-23, but facilitates production of anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL-10 and TGF-Ã, indicating a tolerogenic phenotype. Auto-reactive regulatory T cells (Tregs ) play an important role in induction of peripheral tolerance. Multiple sub-populations of CD4+regulatory T cells such as CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Tregs, CD4+CD127+Tregs and CD4+GITR+Tregs have been found.
High-impact journals are those considered to be highly influential in their respective fields. The impact factor of journal provides quantitative assessment tool for grading, evaluating, sorting and comparing journals of similar kind. It reflects the average number of citations to recent articles published in science and social science journals in a particular year or period, and is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. It is first devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information.The impact factor of a journal is evaluated by dividing the number of current year citations to the source items published in that journal during the previous two years.