Barrett’s esophagus is also called columnar epithelium lined lower oesophagus (CELLO). It is caused due to abnormal changes occur within the cell of the lower portion of the esophagus. The main reason for Barrett,s esophagus is chronic acid exposure from reflex esophagus. Mostly this kind of condition found in 5-10% patients who diagnosed for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Although, many of the patients with barrett’s esophagus do not have symptoms.
Symptoms: Barrett’s esophagus does not cause any particular symptoms, however it is associated with below mentioned symptoms. • heartburn • dysphagia • hematemesis • pain under the sternum where the esophagus meets the stomach • unintentional weight loss because eating is painful
Treatment: For barrett’s esophagus doctors will approach different types of treatment that is depend up on the severity of disease those includes medicines, Endoscopic ablative therapies, Endoscopic mucosal resection, Surgery. Doctors prefer acid supressing medicine like proton pump inhibitor; an Endoscopic ablative therapy is performing by using different methods those are Photodynamic therapy, Radiofrequency ablation; In endoscopic mucosal resection, your doctor lifts the Barrett’s tissue, injects a solution underneath or applies suction to the tissue, and then cuts the tissue off. The doctor then removes the tissue with an endoscope; many of the doctors prefer surgery because this is having very less complications.
The risk of progression of Barrett’s esophagus to carcinoma lies between 0.10% and 0.15% per year. Risk factors for progression include male sex, age over 50 years, obesity, longstanding and frequent reflux symptoms, smoking, length of the Barrett’s esophagus, and intraepithelial neoplasia. Well-differentiated carcinomas that are confined to the esophageal mucosa can be resected endoscopically with a cure rate above 90%. For more advanced, but still locally confined tumors, surgical resection is the treatment of choice. In stages cT3/4, the prognosis can be improved with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy or combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Metastatic Barrett’s carcinoma can be treated by endoscopic, chemotherapeutic, radiotherapeutic, and palliative methods.