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Esophageal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the esophagus. The esophagus is a muscular tube that moves food and liquids from the throat to the stomach. The most common types of esophageal cancer are squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma.
Symptoms: Difficulty swallowing (dysphagia) Weight loss without trying. Chest pain, pressure or burning. Worsening indigestion or heartburn. Coughing or hoarseness.
Diagnosis: It is mainly diagnosed by Endoscopy and Collecting a sample of tissue for testing (biopsy), Physical exam , chest x ray, Barium swallow
Three types of treatment: radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and surgery. Combining chemotherapy and radiation therapy may enhance the effectiveness of each treatment. Combined chemotherapy and radiation may be the only treatment you receive, or combined therapy can be used before surgery. But combining chemotherapy and radiation treatments increases the likelihood and severity of side effects.
Epidemology : From 2002 to 2006, a moderate increase in five-year relative survival by 2.7 percent units was observed for non-cardia stomach cancer patients in Germany. Five-year relative cancer survival has reached levels around 40% for patients with non-cardia stomach cancer in Germany in the early 21st century, whereas it remained at lower levels around 20% for patients with esophagus and cardia cancer.