Infestation of a human or an animal with the liver fluke. It is a parasitic worm infection caused by the common liver fluke Fasciola hepatica as well as by Fasciola gigantica. The disease is a plant-borne trematode zoonosis, and is classified as a Neglected Tropical Disease
Symptoms: Urticaria Respiratory symptoms (very rare): cough, dyspnoea, chest pain, hemoptysis Hepatomegaly and splenomegaly Ascites Anaemia Jaundice
Diagnosis: In humans, diagnosis of fasciolosis is usually achieved parasitologically by findings the fluke eggs in stool, and immunologically by ELISA and Western blot. Ultrasonography and xray of the abdominal cavity, biopsy of liver, and gallbladder punctuate can also be used. The drug of choice in the treatment of fasciolosis is triclabendazole, a member of the benzimidazole family of anthelmintics. Praziquantel treatment is ineffective.
Epidemology: High prevalences in humans are not necessarily found in areas where fasciolosis is a great veterinary problem. For instance, in South America, hyperendemics and mesoendemics are found in Bolivia and Peru where the veterinary problem is less important, while in countries such as Uruguay, Argentina and Chile, human fasciolosis is only sporadic or hypoendemic.