Broadly defined, nasal polyps are abnormal lesions that originate from any portion of the nasal mucosa or paranasal sinuses. Conditions leading to chronic inflammation in the nasal cavity such as bronchial asthma can lead to nasal polyps. In a genomic DNA study of 257 tissue specimens, HPV-DNA was detected in 53.8% of antrochoanal polyps, 15.1% of nasal polyps, and 5.8% of nasal turbinates. HPV16 was the predominant type with a detection rate of 76% in nasal polyps and 62% in antrochoanal polyps.
Oral steroids are the most effective medical treatment for nasal polyposis. In adults, most authors use prednisone (30-60 mg) for 4-7 days and taper the medicine for 1-3 weeks. Dosage varies for children, but the maximum dose is usually 1 mg/kg/d for 5-7 days, then taper over 1-3 weeks. Although much work has been done on chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps there are many questions still unanswered.To provide good evidence for the use of local antibiotic treatment in acute exacerbations of chronic rhinosinusitis, further studies with better characterized patients are needed.