Osteosarcoma is a bone tumor that can occur in any bone. It most commonly occurs in the long bones of the extremities near metaphyseal growth plates. Osteosarcoma has a predilection for developing in rapidly growing bone. A number of studies have established a correlation between the rapid bone growth experienced during puberty and osteosarcoma development.
Osteosarcoma was more common in males than females in most countries. The ratio in Denmark ranges from male-to-female ratio of osteosarcoma in ages 0–24 was 1.43:1. Despite the success of chemotherapy for osteosarcoma, it has one of the lowest survival rates for pediatric cancer. The best reported 10-year survival rate is 92%; the protocol used is an aggressive intra-arterial regimen that individualizes therapy based on arteriographic response. Three-year event-free survival ranges from 50% to 75%, and five-year survival ranges from 60% to 85+% in some studies. Overall, 65–70% patients treated five years ago will be alive today. These survival rates are overall averages and vary greatly depending on the individual necrosis rate.