It has been postulated that hair penetrates into the subcutaneous tissues through dilated hair follicles, which is thought to occur particularly in late adolescence, though follicles are not found in the walls of cysts. A sinus develops with a short tract, with a not clearly understood suction mechanism involving local anatomy, eventually leading to further penetration of the hair into the subcutaneous tissue.
Pilonidal cysts can now be treated with a super-thin laser - with a fiber optic diameter of 400 microns (less than half a millimeter), which makes the beam diameter just one thousandth of a millimeter. This method allows for complete healing of all fistulas and dermoids, without excision of the inflammatory structure. There is no longer a need for massive tissue removal – which means no large wounds or fissures.
Research is going on in a large scale. Many scientists have submitted their articles for pilonidal cyst.
Around 50% of population is suffering from this disease.