Prostate cancer is cancer that occurs in a man's prostate which is a small walnut-shaped gland that produces the seminal fluid that nourishes and transports sperm. It usually grows slowly and initially remains confined to the prostate gland, where it may not cause serious harm. While some types of prostate cancer grow slowly and may need minimal or no treatment, other types are aggressive and can spread quickly.
Pathopysiology: Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) is the histologic entity widely considered to be the most likely precursor of invasive prostate cancer. Although not all patients with high-grade PIN (HGPIN) progress to develop invasive disease. It is characterized by cellular proliferation within pre-existing ducts and glands, with cytologic changes that mimic those of cancer. PIN is associated with progressive abnormalities of phenotype and genotype that are intermediate between normal prostatic epithelium and cancer. The recognition of the strong association of HGPIN and cancer has led many investigators to propose its use as an intermediate marker in chemoprevention studies.
Stages of Prostate Cancer: Different stages of a prostate cancer can be determined by using the TNM staging system, which helps to describe different aspects of the cancer’s growth.
T – the T category measures the size and extent of the Tumor.
N – the N category measures whether and how far the cancer has spread to the Lymph Nodes.
M – the M category whether the cancer has spread to other organs in the body (a process called Metastasis.