The hair follicle is a structure of the skin from which hair grows. The hair follicles grow all over the skin, with the exception of the lips, palms of the hands, and soles of the feet. Hair follicles grow hair by packing old cells together. The hair follicle is supplied with one or more sebaceous glands, which provide sebum, an oily substance that helps lubricate the hair and skin. Apocrine sweat glands also help lubricate the hair follicles of the armpits, groin, and areolae. Areas with thicker hair growth, such as the scalp, have more sebaceous glands. The sebaceous gland, the hair follicle is provided with the arrector pili, a bundle of muscle fibers that creates goose bumps when contracted. Hair follicles also have stem cells at their base, which contribute to regular hair growth. The base of the hair follicle is called the papilla. It consists of connective tissue and a capillary loop, or tiny blood vessel. The papilla is surrounded by the hair matrix, which consists of epithelial cells and melanocytes. The epithelial cells divide very quickly, causing regular hair growth, while the melanocytes provide pigment, and are responsible for hair color.
Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel roads towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is self-archiving (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals.
Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.
Last date updated on June, 2014