Turkey is a nation straddling eastern Europe and western Asia with cultural connections to ancient Greek, Persian, Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman empires. Cosmopolitan Istanbul, on the Bosphorus Strait, is home to the iconic Hagia Sophia, with its soaring dome and Christian mosaics, the massive 17th-century Blue Mosque and the circa-1460 Topkap? Palace, former home of sultans. Ankara is Turkey’s modern capital.
The European section of Turkey, East Thrace (the easternmost region of the Balkan peninsula), forms the borders of Turkey with Greece and Bulgaria. The Asian part of the country is comprised mostly by the peninsula of Anatolia, which consists of a high central plateau with narrow coastal plains, between the Köro?lu and Pontic mountain ranges to the north and the Taurus Mountains to the south.
The EU – Turkey Customs Union in 1995 led to an extensive liberalization of tariff rates, and forms one of the most important pillars of Turkey's foreign trade policy. Turkey's exports were $143.5 billion in 2011 and reached $163 billion in 2012 However, larger imports which amounted to $229 billion in 2012 threatened the balance of trade (main import partners in 2012.
In Chemistry and Literature, Turkey produced 2 Nobel laureates so far. TUSEB will establish its organization in the area of health sciences and technology research in respect with the needs of the country by consistently adding new research institutions and incorporating the excellence of cooperation network. With this purpose in mind, the first established institutions are as follows: Turkish Cancer Institute, Turkish Biotechnology Institute, Turkish Mother, Child and Adolescent Health Institute, Turkish Public Health and Chronic Diseases Institute, Turkish Traditional and Complementary Medicine Institute, Turkish Health Care Quality and Accreditation Institute. Numerous Health Care journals are published from Turkey with good reputation.