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Trevor Cornelius Stuart Archer
Department of Psychology
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is an enveloped virus, belonging to the viral family Retroviridae. It is a highly evolved virus which has grasped the attention of all researchers with its special features like morphology, genetics and also by its emerging nature. The special feature of all retro viruses is the presence of an enzyme called Reverse transcriptase which plays major role in reverse transcription process. HIV enters the host body, damages immune system and will cause life-threatening opportunistic infections finally leads to AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome).
HIV: Current Research deals with morphology and genetic alterations of HIV with main focus on infection, transmission, replication, reverse transcription, diagnosis, vaccine research, immunological reactions, prevention and treatment techniques, etc. It is an international platform to the authors to share their updated research work across the world.
HIV: Current Research accepts all article types include research, review, case report, short communication, special issue, commentaries and clinical images. HIV: Current Research is an open access, peer-reviewed, scholarly journal that maintains high standards of scientific excellence and ensures rapid peer review process through Editorial Manager System with the help of eminent editorial board members. Authors may submit manuscripts and track their progress through the Editorial Manager system. Readers can access recent improvements of HIV research and disseminate knowledge for better understanding of virus.
Diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus can be performed by various bio-chemical techniques. Body fluids like saliva, urine or serum of suspected individuals should be collected for the detection of RNA, antibodies or antigens. Diagnoses through antibody detection tests are specially designed biochemical techniques which are extremely accurate and inexpensive. ELISA and Western blot techniques are well-known antibody detection tests for the diagnosis of HIV.
Transmission of HIV occurs through certain body fluids of infected person which includes blood, semen, vaginal fluids, rectal secretions, breast milk, etc. HIV generally transmits by sex, blood transfusion and organ transplantation if proper care has not taken. HIV also transfers from infected mother to child at the time of pregnancy and also through breast milk which is called mother to child transmission.
Many advanced HIV testing methodologies has been developed to reduce the risk of HIV infection. HIV testing helps to improve the health outcomes for the people living with HIV. Window period, ELISA, ELISA dongle, Western blot, Rapid or point-of-care tests, Interpreting antibody tests, Accuracy of HIV testing are the Antibody tests. Some other methods for HIV testing are Antigen tests, Nucleic acid-based tests, Screening, CD4 T-cell count, Oral tests, AIDS denialism and fraudulent testing.
HIV-1 super infection in humans have been reported since 2002. Super infection is defined as the reinfection of an individual who already has an established infection with a heterologous HIV strain. Controversy exists surrounding superinfection, because it has implications concerning our understanding of worldwide HIV diversity, individual immunity and disease progression, and vaccine development. Here, we review the current understanding of HIV superinfection. The initial published reports involved individuals who were reinfected with a virus that belonged to a clade different from that of the initial infecting virus immune responses to the initial infection might be less likely to be protective against such a divergent superinfecting virus. Subsequently, however, reinfection with a virus that belonged to the same clade as the initial infecting virus (intraclade superinfection) started to be reported.
People who infected with the human immunodeficiency virus are called as HIV infected people and they abbreviated as PLWHA (People Living With HIV/AIDS). According to the AIDS epidemic update by UNAIDS in 2007, 33.2 million people are infected with HIV/AIDS and more than 68% of infected HIV individuals are living in Sub-Saharan Africa. According to a UNAIDS report, more than 4 million people were receiving antiretroviral therapy by the end of 2008 and there is an increase of 1 million compared with the end of 2007
A vaccine is a biological preparation that protects against the deadly infections or diseases. Vaccines have been developed for smallpox, polio, measles, and yellow fever but not for the HIV. Currently we do not have effective vaccine to protect human immune system from HIV virus. Still scientists are in clinical trials to find out significant vaccines that prevent from HIV infection.
Currently, biopharmaceutical companies are concentrating on improving treatment regimens, more effective therapies and preventive vaccines that are either in clinical trials or awaiting review by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are in progress
• A first-in-class medicine intended to prevent HIV from breaking through the cell membrane.
• A cell therapy that modifies a patient’s own cells in an attempt to make them resistant to HIV.
• A therapeutic vaccine designed to induce responses from T cells that play a role in immune protection against viral infections
The HIV/AIDS risk analysis is a process of gathering all relevant data about the organization and its staff members, to be able to investigate to what extent the organization is at risk regarding HIV/AIDS. A risk analysis focuses on identifying the characteristics of HIV and AIDS; how it affects the organization and staff; the degree of vulnerability; and the capacity of the organization to deal with HIV/AIDS. By doing a risk analysis, organizations can identify their risks towards HIV/AIDS and plan a strategy on overcoming these risks mainly by including those issues in the HIV and AIDS workplace policy development and implementation. HIV/AIDS risk analysis could be conducted at organizational level by assessing three variables of disaster risks which are hazard, vulnerability and capacity.
Antiretroviral treatment are medications that treat HIV. The drugs do not kill or cure the virus. However, when taken in combination they can prevent the growth of the virus. When the virus is slowed down, so is HIV disease. Antiretroviral drugs are referred to as ARV. Combination ARV therapy (cART) is referred to as highly active ART (HAART). Each type, or “class”, of ARV drugs attacks HIV in a different way. The first class of anti-HIV drugs was the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (also called NRTIs or “nukes”.) These drugs block step 4, where the HIV genetic material is used to create DNA from RNA.