Definition: Autism is a general term for a group of complex disorders of brain development. These disorders are characterized, in varying degrees, by difficulties in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication and repetitive behaviours. In recent times all autism disorders were merged into one umbrella diagnosis of Autism spectrum disorders (ASD).
Symptoms and Treatment: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by social-interaction difficulties, communication challenges and a tendency to engage in repetitive behaviors. However, symptoms and their severity vary widely across these three core areas. Taken together, they may result in relatively mild challenges for someone on the high functioning end of the autism spectrum. Each child or adult with autism is unique so, each autism intervention plan should be tailored to address specific needs. Intervention can involve behavioral treatments, medicines or both. Many persons with autism have additional medical conditions such as sleep disturbance, seizures and gastrointestinal (GI) distress. Addressing these conditions can improve attention, learning and related behaviors.
Statistics: Satistical analysis of Autism in Hong-Kong were resulted as one study showed that monozygotic twins had higher concordance rates than dizygotic twins for ASDs, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), developmental coordination disorder, and tic disorder with differences in cross-disorder effects between monozygotic and dizygotic twins, raising the question of the specificity of the underlying genetic factors. Another study recently challenged the high heritability model of autism, estimating the heritability of autism to be 55 %.