Colic is commonly described as a behavioral syndrome in neonates and infants that is characterized by excessive, paroxysmal crying. Colic is most likely to occur in the evenings, and it occurs without any identifiable cause. In the setting of colic, a detailed history should be obtained regarding the following: Timing of crying: Crying by infants with or without colic is mostly observed during evening hours and peaks at the age of 6 weeks, Amount of crying: The amount of crying is not related to an infant’s sex; the mother’s parity; or the parents’ socioeconomic status, education, or ages, Characteristics of crying: Compared with regular crying, colicky crying is more turbulent or dysphonic and has a higher pitch, Family’s daily routine, Possible other causes of excessive crying (eg, having hair in the eye, strangulated hernia, otitis, sepsis); colic remains a diagnosis of exclusion. To date, there were 222 mild-to-severe colic patients (192 type A, 30 type B) under regular public care in Hong Kong (43% were considered severe, 33% moderate, and 24% mild), which gave a crude prevalence of 6.8/100 000 male inhabitants. A total of 12.8 million units of Factor VIII and 3 million units of Factor IX were prescribed annually. This amounts to 1.83 units of FVIII per capita of the population, which is comparable to that of other developed countries. Leading causes of mortality were human immunodeficiency virus-related complications (10 cases) and cerebral bleeding (2 cases). The life expectancy of patients with severe haemophilia in Hong Kong is improving; currently the oldest patient is 60 years old. Such improved survival may be due to enhanced factor availability, prompt treatment of bleeding episodes at home, safer factor products, and better antiviral treatment.
Primary prophylaxis is the accepted standard of care for severe and moderate cases, and "Factor First" has become hospital policy. However, 12 patients continue to present treatment challenges, due to the documented presence of factor inhibitors. In all, 28, 100, and 14 cases respectively were positive for human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus, and hepatitis B virus; the youngest patients with the corresponding infections being 28, 13, and 22 years old. The following should be kept in mind in the workup of a patient with colic: Laboratory studies are usually not indicated unless another condition is suspected, If the patient’s stools are excessively watery, testing them for excess reducing substances may be worthwhile; positive results may indicate an underlying GI problem, Stool may be tested for occult blood to rule out cow’s milk allergy, Irritability and crying may be associated with GERD because of the pain associated with esophagitis. Dietary changes may include the following: Elimination of cow’s milk protein in cases of suspected intolerance of the protein, In infants with suspected cow’s milk allergy (CMA), a protein hydrolysate formula is indicated, Uncommonly, amino acid–based formulas may be needed to manage suspected CMA, though evidence may be lacking for use in colic, Soy-based formulas are not recommended, because many infants who are allergic to cow’s milk protein may also become intolerant of soy protein. Researchers used behavior data to treat colic — along with information about levels of maternal depression and paternal involvement — to develop a care plan for each baby who came to the clinic. They offered strategies for helping babies sleep better: if babies cried after feedings, researchers would consider whether reflux was a possibility. For catnappers who couldn’t seem to consolidate their sleep, researchers might suggest stricter schedules to help encourage a more defined sleep/wake cycle.