Hematuria is the presence of red blood cells in the urine. It may be benign. If white blood cells are found in addition to red blood cells, then it is a signal of urinary tract infection. Types: Hematuria is of two types 1. Microscopic hematuria - Small amounts of blood can be seen on light microscopy or urinanalysis. 2. Macroscopic hematuria –Gross hematuria Diagnosis: Sometimes the cause of hematuria can be elucidated solely on the basis of the medical history and urine testing, or urinalysis.
Causes Urinary tract infection with bacteria. The vast majority of UTIs are caused by Escherichia coli, with a smaller percentage due toKlebsiella,pneumonia and Staphylococcus saprophyticus , Nephrolithiasis,stones in the kidney, bladder or ureter ,Trauma. Cancer of the kidney, prostate or bladder Other causes includes: Glomerular bleeding: eg: IgA nephropathy ("Berger's disease"), Alport syndrome, thin basement membrane disease ,Sickle cell disease.
Statistics A total of 209 renal biopsies were performed, 162 on native kidneys and 47 on grafts. In the native group, major indications were renal manifestations secondary to systemic diseases (34%), followed by idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (28%) and haematuria (27%). In 94% the histopathology revealed glomerular diseases. Among the primary glomerular diseases, thin glomerular basement membrane disease, immunoglobulin A nephropathy, minimal change disease, and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis accounted for most.