Micronutrient malnutrition Micronutrient malnutrition is a term used to refer to diseases caused by a dietary deficiency of vitamins or minerals. More than 2 billion people in the world today may be affected by Micronutrient malnutrition.Research has conclusively shown that malnutrition during pregnancy causes the child to have increased risk of future diseases, physical retardation, and reduced cognitive abilities Micronutrient deficiency is a lack of essential vitamins and minerals required in small amounts by the body for proper growth and development. Micronutrients include, but are not limited to: • Vitamins A, B, C and D, Calcium, Folate, Iodine, Iron, Zinc. In hongkong about 2.18 per cent of dealth rate is occuring in a year, because of malnutrition.
• Micronutrient deficiencies affect more than two billion people of all ages in both developing and industrialized countries. They are the cause of some diseases, exacerbate others and are recognized as having an important impact on worldwide health.Importantmicronutrients include iodine, iron, zinc, calcium, selenium, fluorine, and vitamins A, B6, B12, B1,B2, B3, and C.
Treatment for Micronutrient malnutrition Proper intake dietary supplements in food are very essential. Iron is a micronutrient that is essential to the structure of every cell in the body, but particularly red blood cells (haemoglobin), which transport oxygen in the blood to tissues in the body. Iodine is a nutrient essential for normal functioning of the thyroid gland, production of thyroid hormones and metabolism. Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin naturally produced in the body. It is essential to the absorption of calcium for proper bone development and function. Selenium is a trace mineral needed by the body in small amounts for good health. It is incorporated into proteins to make important antioxidant enzymes. These enzymes help prevent cellular damage from free radicals that can cause the development of chronic diseases such as cancer and heart disease.
• Micronutrient deficiencies are associated with 10% of all children's deaths, and are therefore of special concern to those involved with child welfare. Deficiencies of essential vitamins or minerals such as Vitamin A, iron, and zinc may be caused by long-term shortages of nutritious food or by infections such as intestinal worms. They may also be caused or exacerbated when illnesses (such as diarrhoea or malaria) cause rapid loss of nutrients through feces or vomit.Major Micronutrient deficiencies: Anemia, Iodine defiency disorders, Xeropthalmia, Multiple disorders, Iron, Iodine, Vitamin A, Zinc.
Vitamin A is a group of compounds that play a significant role in vision, bone development, immune support, and normal bodily function. Retinol and beta-carotene are forms of pre-vitamin A which are converted to vitamin A in the body. Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin that exists in several forms. Vitamin B12 is needed for proper red blood cell formation and the maintenance of healthy nerve cells. It is also essential to making DNA, the genetic material in cells. Folate, also known as vitamin B9, is a water-soluble vitamin naturally found in foods. Folate is necessary for the production and maintenance of new cells. Zinc supports normal growth and development during childhood and adolescence, and is required for proper sense of taste and smell.