Typhoid fever is transmitted by ingestion of food or water contaminated by faeces or urine of patients or carriers. Important vehicles include shellfish, raw fruits and vegetables fertilised by human excrement and eaten raw, contaminated milk / milk products, and undiagnosed cases. Flies may also act as mechanical carrier and infect food in which the bacteria multiply to infective dose. The average yearly number of cases for 2000 to 2009 was 59.6, equivalent to an average incidence rate of 0.88 case per 100 000 population per year, which is considered to be low by WHO’s classification. Hong Kong therefore is not considered as a typhoid fever endemic area. More cases (54%) were notified between May and September.
Several antibiotics are effective for the treatment of typhoid fever. Chloramphenicol was the original drug of choice for many years. Because of rare serious side effects, chloramphenicol has been replaced by other effective antibiotics. The choice of antibiotics is guided by identifying the geographic region where the infection was contracted (certain strains from South America show a significant resistance to some antibiotics.) If relapses occur, patients are retreated with antibiotics. Researches focusing on Comparative genomicsstudy for identification of putative drug targets in Salmonella typhi Type 2.