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ISSN: 2157-7110
Journal of Food Processing & Technology
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Impact of Edible Coating and Different Packaging Treatments on Microbial Quality of Paneer

Archana G. Lamdande1*, Shyam R. Garud2 and Anil Kumar1

1Deparment of Food Science and Technology, College of Agriculture, G.B.P.U.A.T., Pantnagar, India

2Deparment Post Harvest Process and Food Engineering, College of Technology, G.B.P.U.A.T., Pantnagar, India

*Corresponding Author:
Archana G. Lamdande
Department of Food Science and Technology
College of Agriculture, G.B.P.U.A.T.
Pantnagar, India
Tel: 09595284448
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: April 18, 2012; Accepted date: June 21, 2012; Published date: June 25, 2012

Citation: Lamdande AG, Garud SR, Anil Kumar (2012) Impact of Edible Coating and Different Packaging Treatments on Microbial Quality of Paneer. J Food Process Technol 3:159. doi:10.4172/2157-7110.1000159

Copyright: © 2012 Lamdande AG, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Keywords

Edible coating; Paneer; Quality; Packaging material; Shelf life

Introduction

Milk and milk products form an essential component of the human diet and no other single natural food meets the nutritional requirements better than milk. There are various dairy products like cheese, butter, ghee, paneer, khoa, curd; malai etc., among these paneer is an important indigenous dairy product. The shelf life of panner is only 1 day at room temperature and 6 days at 10°C [1]. Many techniques have been studied in order to overcome these problems and extend the shelf life of fresh produce, for example, low temperature and high relative humidity, controlled and modified atmosphere packaging, etc. Edible film and coating enhances the quality of food products, protecting them from physical, chemical and microbiological deterioration [2]. Edible coating can act as moisture and gas barriers, control microbial growth, preserve the color, texture and moisture of the product, and can effectively extend the shelf life of the product.

The microbiological quality of paneer depends on the microbiological quality of milk, and the hygiene exercised during manufacture of paneer and its subsequent handling, packaging and storage. Microorganisms such as coliforms, yeasts and moulds that might be present in raw milk get destroyed completely, when milk is heated at 82°C for 5 min. But these microbes may contaminate the product through a number of sources like air, water, equipment, knife, muslin cloth and persons handling the products [3]. These microbes can cause proteolytic and lipolytic changes, discoloration and other defects in the product [4]. According to Sachdeva [5], quality of paneer deteriorates due to the growth of organisms on the surface of paneer during storage. The total counts as well as yeast and mould counts increased during storage of paneer up to 10 days at 5ºC. Gupta [6], Thakral [7] and Parashar [8] reported about the increasing trend of the total viable count of paneer treated with 2% potassium sorbate.

The objective of present investigation is to evaluate the effect of edible coating and different packaging treatments on microbial quality of paneer and help to increase the shelf life of paneer.

Materials and Methods

Buffalo milk, whey protein concentrate, citric acid and water were used in the investigation.

Paneer preparation

Paneer was prepared as per the procedure outlined by Sachdeva [5]. Composite edible coating prepared by using whey protein concentrate and applied on the cubes of paneer. Edible coating acted as moisture and gas barrier, control microbial growth, preserve the color, texture and moisture of the product and effectively extend the shelf life of the product.

Then edible coated paneer cubes was packed into polypropylene, LDPE, and laminates and stored at temperatures 5 ± 1°C, 30 ± 1°C and ambient conditions. The stored paneer samples were tested periodically.

Analytical procedures

Total Viable count and Yeast and Mould Count were determined by using APHA [9] method.

Statistical analysis

Statistical analysis was performed using 3 Factorial completely randomized design (CRD). The experimental data were analyzed using the statistical methods of Snedecor and Cochran [10].

Results and Discussion

The effect of coating and packaging materials on microbiological characteristics of paneer during storage without vacuum were recorded below.

Total Viable Count (TVC)

Packaging material had significant effect (P ≤ 0.05), whereas coating and temperature and their interactive effect were found significant (P ≤ 0.01) on total viable count of the product during storage (Table 1).

  a b c a*b b*c a*c a*b*c
F value 490.59 * 5.49 * 231.85** 9.32 ** 33.30 ** 193.42** 37.82 **
SEM ± 19.56 23.96 23.96 33.88 33.88 41.50 58.69
C.D. at 5% 56.23 68.86 68.86 97.38 97.38 119.27 168.68
C.D. at 1% 75.24 92.15 92.15 130.32 130.32 159.61 225.72

Table 1: Effect of treatments on Total viable count of paneer during storage.

The results showed that the initial total plate count of control sample of paneer (P1) on zero days was 3.0 × 102 cfu/g and at the end of 2nd day it was 4.6 × 103 cfu/g. The uncoated samples of paneer packed in polypropylene (P2), LDPE (P3) and laminates (P4) had microbial count 4.7 × 103, 8.6 × 103 and 9.65 × 103 cfu/g on 4th day of storage while coated samples of paneer packed in polypropylene (P5), LDPE (P6) and laminates (P7) had microbial count 1.95 × 103, 2.15 × 103 and 2.35 × 103 cfu/g on 12th day of storage at 30 ± 1°C (Table 2).

Sample code Microbial Counts (cfu/g) Total viable count
Days of storage
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
P1 3.0×102 4.6×103 N.A - - - - -
P2 2.5×102 1.25 ×103 4.7×103 N.A - - - -
P3 2.0×102 1.35 ×103 8.6 ×103 N.A - - - -
P4 1.5×102 1.42×103 9.65×103 N.A - - - -
P5 2.0×102 4.5×102 7.0×102 8.0×102 1.25×103 1.55×103 1.95 ×103 N.A
P6 1.0×102 3.5×102 7.5×102 9.5×102 1.45×103 1.66 ×103 2.15 ×103 N.A
P7 1.0×102 5.5×102 8.0×102 1.05 ×103 1.55×103 1.67×103 2.35 ×103 N.A

Table 2: Effect of coating and packaging materials on Total viable count of paneer during storage at 30 ± 1°C.

The initial total plate count of control fresh paneer (P1) was 3.0 × 102 cfu/g which increased at the end of 6th day up to 4.6 × 103 cfu/g. Laminate packed uncoated paneer samples had microbial count 1.08 × 104 cfu/g on 28th day of storage. Whereas, coated samples of paneer packed in polypropylene had microbial count 2.15 × 103 cfu/g on 36th day of storage and LDPE and laminates packed coated paneer had microbial count 1.6 × 103 and 2.75 × 103 cfu/g on 40th day of storage at 5 ± 1°C (Table 3).

Sample Code Microbial Counts (cfu/g) Total viable count
Days of storage
0 6 12 18 24 28 32 34 36 38 40 45
P1 3.0×102 4.6×103 N.A - - - - - - - - -
P2 2.5×102 9.5×102 5.5×103 6.3×103 7.0×103 N.A - - - - - -
P3 2.0×102 8.5×102 1.9×103 3.0 ×103 5.5×103 N.A. - - - - - -
P4 1.5×102 4.2×102 2.75×103 6.55×103 8.5×103 1.08×104 N.A. - - - - -
P5 2.0×102 2.5×102 3.0×102 1.55×103 1.8×103 1.85×103 1.9×103 1.95×103 2.15×103 N.A - -
P6 1.0×102 3.5×102 4.2 ×102 6.8 ×102 1.1×103 1.25×103 1.3 ×103 1.45×103 1.5 ×103 1.55×103 1.6×103 N.A.
P7 1.0×102 4.0×102 5.5×102 7.5×102 9.5×102 1.1×103 1.25×103 1.4×103 1.55×103 1.95×103 2.75×103 N.A.

Table 3: Effect of coating and packaging materials on Total viable count of paneer during storage at 5 ± 1°C.

The coated samples of paneer packed in polypropylene, LDPE and laminates had total plate count 5.95 × 103, 5.15 × 103 and 6.55 × 103 cfu/g on 12th day of storage under ambient conditions (Table 4).

Sample Code Microbial Counts (cfu/g) Total viable count
Days of storage
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
P1 3.0×102 5.5×103 N.A - - - - -
P2 2.5×102 4.0 ×103 N.A - - - - -
P3 2.0×102 4.6 ×103 N.A. - - - - -
P4 1.5×102 5.15×103 N.A. - - - - -
P5 2.0×102 7.5×102 1.15 ×103 2.15 ×103 3.72×103 5.15×103 5.95 ×103 N.A
P6 1.0×102 8.5 ×102 1.75 ×103 2.75 ×103 2.95 ×103 4.95 ×103 5.15 ×103 N.A
P7 1.0×102 7.5×102 2.15 ×103 2.85 ×103 4.75×103 5.45 ×103 6.55 ×103 N.A

Table 4: Effect of coating and packaging materials on Total viable count of paneer during storage at ambient conditions.

Yeast and Moulds counts (Y & M counts)

Coating of paneer, packaging material and temperature and their interaction had significant effect (P ≤ 0.01) on Y & M counts of the product during storage at 30 ± 1ºC (Tables 5 and 6). The uncoated samples packed in polypropylene, LDPE and laminates had Y & M counts 1.25 × 103, 1.85 × 103 and 2.05 × 103 cfu/g on 2nd day. Coated paneer samples packed in polypropylene, LDPE and laminates had Y & M counts 1.45 × 103, 1.95 × 103 and 2.15 × 103 cfu/g on 12th day of storage.

  a b C a*b b*c a*c a*b*c
F value 380.01
**
160.68
**
342.02
**
150.21
**
86.27
**
186.86
**
80.41
**
SEM ± 14.77 18.09 18.09 25.59 25.59 31.35 44.33
C.D. at 5% 42.38 51.91 51.91 73.41 73.41 89.91 127.16
C.D. at 1% 56.83 69.61 69.61 98.44 98.44 120.56 170.50

Table 5: Effect of treatments (without vacuum) on Yeast & Mould count of paneer during storage.

Sample Code Microbial Counts (cfu/g) Yeast and Mould count
Days of storage
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
P1 3.5×102 4.6×103 N.A - - - - -
P2 2.5×102 1.25 ×103 N.A - - - - -
P3 2.0×102 1.85×103 N.A - - - - -
P4 1.5×102 2.05×103 N.A - - - - -
P5 2.0×102 3.5×102 7.5×102 9.5×102 1.15×103 1.25×103 1.45×103 N.A.
P6 1.0×102 4.5×102 9.0 ×102 1.15×103 1.55×103 1.62×103 1.95×103 N.A.
P7 2.0×102 3.5 ×102 1.12 ×103 1.45 ×103 1.75 ×103 1.85 ×103 2.15 ×103 N.A.

Table 6: Effect of coating and packaging materials on Yeast and Mould count of paneer during storage at 30 ± 1°C.

At 5 ± 1°C, the uncoated samples packed in laminates had Y & M counts 6.0 × 103 cfu/g on 28th day of storage (Table 7). Coated paneer samples packed in polypropylene had Y & M counts 3.7 × 103 cfu/g on 36th day, whereas LDPE and laminates had 3.4 × 103 and 2.15 × 103 cfu/g on 40th day.

Sample Code Microbial Counts (cfu/g) Yeast and Mould count
Days of storage
0 6 12 18 24 28 32 34 36 38 40 42
P1 3.5×102 3.6×103 N.A - - - - - - - - -
P2 2.5×102 3.9×102 1.0 ×103 1.8×103 2.7 ×103 N.A - - - - - -
P3 2.0×102 4.5×102 1.15×103 1.95×103 3.0 ×103 N.A. - - - - - -
P4 4.0×102 8.0×102 1.35×103 3.55×103 4.5×103 6.0×103 N.A. - - - - -
P5 2.0×102 3.5×102 3.5×102 4.5×102 2.65×103 2.85×103 2.95×103 3.2×103 3.7×103 N.A N.A N.A
P6 1.0×102 2.5×102 8.0×102 1.4 ×103 1.8 ×103 1.85×103 1.9 ×103 2.2×103 2.4×103 3.25×103 3.4×103 N.A.
P7 1.0×102 2.0×102 2.2×102 3.5×102 4.5×102 5.5×102 5.9×102 6.5×102 8.5×102 1.45×103 2.15×103 N.A.

Table 7: Effect of coating and packaging materials on Yeast and Mould count of paneer during storage at 5 ± 1°C.

The Y & M counts of paneer samples packed in polypropylene, LDPE and laminates was 6.15 × 103, 4.35 × 103 and 6.75 × 103 cfu/g on 12th day of storage at ambient conditions (Table 8).

Sample Code Microbial Counts (cfu/g) Yeast and Mould count
Days of storage
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
P1 3.5×102 4.6×103 N.A - - - - -
P2 2.5×102 3.75×103 N.A - - - - -
P3 2.0×102 6.3 ×103 N.A - - - - -
P4 1.5×102 7.1 ×103 N.A - - - - -
P5 2.0×102 4.5×102 1.35×103 1.75×103 2.22×103 4.75×103 6.15×103 N.A.
P6 1.0×102 3.5×102 1.15 ×103 1.65×103 2.45×103 3.75 ×103 4.35×103 N.A.
P7 2.0×102 5.5 ×102 1.65 ×103 1.9 ×103 2.75×103 5.65 ×103 6.75 ×103 N.A.

Table 8: Effect of coating and packaging materials on Yeast and Mould count of paneer during storage at ambient conditions.

Acknowledgements

Authors are grateful to All India Co-ordinated Research Project (AICRP) on Post Harvest Technology (PHT), for providing the financial assistance to carry out the research work. Technical support by the staff and facilities provided by the Department of Food Science & Technology is duly acknowledged.

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