The term Achalasia can be usually defined as the lack of the lower esophageal sphincter to relax and also the presence of esophagus motility abnormalities.Achalasia is a primary esophageal motility disorder characterized by the absence of esophageal peristalsis and impaired relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) in response to swallowing. These abnormalities cause a functional obstruction at the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ).
Signs and Symptoms: Achalasia is mainly associated with abnormalities of esophageal peristalsis (usually complete absence of peristalsis) which is usually the coordinated muscular activity of the body of the esophagus (which mainly comprises 90% of the esophagus) which plays a major role in transportation of food from the throat to the stomach.The main symptoms of achalasia are dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing), regurgitation of undigested food, chest pain behind the sternum, and weight loss.
Disease statistics: The incidence of achalasia in India affects both in men and women equally between the ages of 30-60. It can also occur in infancy and childhood. in children is 0.4 to 1.1 in 100,000 and the prevalence rate is 7.9 to 12.6 per 100,000. Not more than 5% of patients having symptoms of achalasia are younger than 15 years of age.