Adnexal tumors are growths that form on the organs and connective tissues around the uterus in women. Adnexal tumors are most often noncancerous (benign), but they can be cancerous (malignant).Adnexal tumors occur in the Ovaries, Fallopian tubes, Connective tissue around the ovaries or fallopian tubes. Diagnosis of adnexal tumors involves a careful physical exam, imaging tests and, sometimes, surgery. Treatment for adnexal tumors depends on the specific location and types of cells involved.
The pathophysiology is not well understood for most adnexal masses; however, some theories have been proposed. Functional cysts may be the result of variation in normal follicle formation. Mature cystic teratoma may be the result of abnormal germ cell proliferation. Endometriomas are thought to result from retrograde menstruation or coelomic metaplasia. The exact cause of epithelial neoplasms is unknown, but recent studies have suggested a complex series of molecular genetic changes is involved.
This year, an estimated 21,290 women in the United States will be diagnosed with ovarian cancer. It is estimated that 14,180 deaths from this disease will occur this year. It is the fifth most common cause of cancer-related death in women.The overall five-year survival rate is the percentage of women who survive at least five years after the cancer is found. The overall five-year survival rate is 45%, but this varies widely depending on the extent or stage of the cancer and the age of the woman.If the cancer is diagnosed and treated before it has spread outside the ovaries, the five-year survival rate is 92%. If the cancer has spread to the surrounding organs or tissue (regional spread), the five-year survival rate is 72%. If the cancer has spread to parts of the body far away from the ovary (distant spread), the five-year survival rate is 27%. The overall 10-year survival rate for ovarian cancer is 35%.