Definition: Chapare hemorrhagic fever (CHHF) is caused by Chapare virus, a single-strand RNA virus of the Arenaviridae family. Chapare virus is certainly zoonotic, or animal-borne. The limited clinical information about CHHF comes from a small, poorly described cluster of hemorrhagic fever cases in rural Bolivia. A single fatal case yielded the only clinical description and blood specimen to date.
Symptoms and Treatment: The symptoms of CHHF, as reported in the only described patient, resemble those of other South American hemorrhagic fevers, such as Argentine HF or Bolivian HF. The incubation period is unknown, but for Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF) is 6 to 16 days. The CHHF clinical course included: Fever, headache, articulation and muscle pain, vomiting. These symptoms were followed by deterioration with multiple hemorrhagic signs. The only described CHHF patient died 14 days after onset of symptoms. Supportive therapy is important in CHHF. This includes: maintenance of hydration, management of shock, sedation, pain relief, usual precautions for patients with bleeding disorders, transfusions. Use of convalescent plasma therapy for treatment of AHF reduces mortality significantly and anecdotal evidence shows that the antiviral drug ribavirin may also hold promise for treating AHF. Ribavirin has also been considered for preventing development of disease in people exposed to other arenaviruses.
Statistics: Disease statistics of Chapare Hemorrhagic Fever in India resulted as Arenaviruses are ambisense RNA viruses that are divided into Old World (OW) and New World (NW) virus groups based on their phylogenetic, serological, and geographical differences. While the prototypic OW arenavirus LCMV with worldwide distribution causes only mild illness in immunocompetent individuals, two other known OW arenaviruses (LASV and LUJV, both found in Africa) can cause severe hemorrhagic fever (HF) in humans. In addition, several of the NW arenaviruses in South America (e.g., JUNV, MACV, SABV, GTOV, and CHPV) can also cause severe hemorrhagic fevers (HF).