Cirrhosis is a late stage of hepatic fibrosis in which the liver does not function properly due to long-term damage. Cirrhosis is identified by regenerative nodules surrounded by dense fibrotic tissue. There are various symptoms related to person suffering from this disease which includes: person may become tired, weak, itchy, have swelling in the lower legs, develop yellow skin, bruise easily, have fluid buildup in the abdomen, or develop spider-like blood vessels on the skin. It is mainly caused by alcohol, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Some major causes of cirrhosis, such as hepatitis B, can be prevented by vaccination. The pathological hallmark of cirrhosis is the development of scar tissue that replaces normal parenchyma. This scar tissue blocks the portal flow of blood through the organ therefore disturbing normal function. Major symptoms for Cirrhosis are: liver dysfunction, portal hypertension, unestablished cause (like Nail changes) and advanced diseases like Hepatic encephalopathy, acute kidney injury.
The percentage of patients encountered with Cirrhosis in India is 39.5% males and 19.6% females. Cirrhosis resulted in 1.2 million deaths in 2013, up from 0.8 million deaths in 1990. Of these, alcohol caused 384,000, hepatitis C caused 358,000, and hepatitis B caused 317,000.
Treatment strategies for cirrhosis are population-wide interventions for reducing alcohol intake, several programs to reduce the transmission of viral hepatitis, and screening of relatives of people with hereditary liver diseases. It mainly includes slow the progression of scar tissue in the liver and to prevent or treat symptoms and complications of cirrhosis. Antiviral medications may be useful for treatment of Hepatitis B and C. Steroid medications may be useful for autoimmune hepatitis. Ursodiol may be useful in the case if disease is due to blockage of the bile ducts. Other medications may be useful for complications such as swelling, hepatic encephalopathy, and dilated esophageal veins and severe Cirrhosis can be treated with liver transplant.
Cirrhosis ongoing research
The ongoing research studies on to treat Cirrhosis in India include: Hepatitis C Virus Prevalence among Patients Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the US Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group, Long-term treatment of chronic hepatitis C with glycyrrhizin [stronger neo-minophagen C (SNMC)] for preventing liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma etc.