Cold sores are caused by certain strains of the herpes simplex virus (HSV). HSV-1 usually causes cold sores. HSV-2 is usually responsible for genital herpes. However, either type can cause sores in the facial area or on the genitals. Most people who are infected with the virus that causes cold sores never develop signs and symptoms. The herpes simplex virus usually enters the body through a break in the skin around or inside the mouth. It is usually spread when a person touches a cold sore or touches infected fluid-such as from sharing eating utensils or razors, kissing an infected person, or touching that person's saliva. A parent who has a cold sore often spreads the infection to his or her child in this way. Cold sores can also be spread to other areas of the body. Although data are sparse for India, studies have shown HSV-2 seroprevalences among sexually transmitted diseases clinic attendees4,5 ranging from 43% to 83%, and lower prevalences in population-based cross-sectional studies,6–8 from 7.9% to 14.6%.Of the 2131 women screened, 1193 were eligible. Reasons for noneligibility included not living in the geographical area, age, not being sexually active in prior 3 months, pregnancy, and having vaginal bleeding. Of those, 996 (83%) agreed to participate and 898 (75%) completed all baseline procedures and were included in the study. The mean age of participants was 25.8 years (range: 16–30 years). Most (69%) women were Hindus and 29% were Muslims. Women’s mean age at menarche was 13 years, and at marriage, 16.9 years. Almost half (49%) of participants had more than 5 years of education, but 26% had no schooling. Reversible methods of family planning were not common, with 4% using intrauterine devices, 2% oral contraceptives, and 5% condoms or abstinence. Tubectomy was common (63%) and 25% used no contraception. Most women (84.5%) reported having children. Seventy-four percent were house-wives, 20% worked as unskilled laborers, and 6% had other occupations. Among their husbands, 45% worked as unskilled laborers, 43% performed skilled jobs, and another 11% were drivers. Cold sores usually clear up without treatment within 7 to 10 days. Antiviral tablets or cream can be used to ease your symptoms and speed up the healing time.
Antiviral creams such as aciclovir or penciclovir (also known as Fenistil) may speed up the healing time of a recurrent cold sore infection if used correctly.Cold sore creams are widely available over the counter from pharmacies without a prescription. They are only effective if you apply them as soon as the first signs of a cold sore appear, when the herpes simplex virus is spreading and replicating. Using an antiviral cream after this initial period is unlikely to have much effect. Cold sore patches that contain a special gel called hydrocolloid are also available. They are an effective treatment for skin wounds and are placed over the cold sore to hide the sore area while it heals Various vaccine candidates have been developed, the first ones in the 1920s, but none has been successful to date. Due to the genetic similarity of both herpes simplex virus types (HSV-1 and HSV-2), the development of a prophylactic-therapeutic vaccine which is proven effective against one type of the virus would provide fundamentals for vaccine-development for the other virus type. As of 2015, several vaccine candidates are in different stages of clinical trials as they are being tested for safety and efficacy, including at least three vaccine candidates in the US and one in Australia.