Craniopharyngioma is a type of brain tumor derived from pituitary gland embryonic tissue that occurs most commonly in children but also in men and women in their 50s and 60s. People may present with bitemporal inferior quadrantanopia leading to bitemporal hemianopia, as the tumor may compress the optic chiasm. Craniopharyngiomas are typically very slow growing tumors. They arise from the cells along the pituitary stalk, specifically from nests of odontogenic (tooth-forming) epithelium within the suprasellar/diencephalic region and, therefore, contain deposits of calcium, which are evident on an x-ray. Balance disorder, Dry skin, Fatigue, Fever, Headache, Hypersomnia, Lethargy, Myxedema, Nausea etc. include is symptoms.
Craniopharyngiomas are slow growing tumors with an incidence of between 1.2% and 4.6%, having a bimodal age distribution typically peaking in childhood and in adults between 45 and 60 years. These tumors are histologically benign, recurrence rates up to 57% have been reported even after surgical gross total resections, due to their invasiveness.
Treatment generally consists of subfrontal or transsphenoidal excision. Surgery using the transsphenoidal route is often performed by a joint team of ENT and neurosurgeons. Because of the location of the craniopharyngioma near the brain and skullbase, a surgical navigation system might be used to verify the position of surgical tools during the operation. Additional radiotherapy is also used if total removal is not possible.
The ongoing researches in India on craniopharyngioma include: Craniopharyngioma and epidermoid tumour in same child: a rare association, Extracranial infrasellar craniopharyngioma, Remote delayed recurrence of craniopharyngioma after radiotherapy.