Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes that occurs when your body produces high levels of blood acids called ketones.The condition develops when your body can't produce enough insulin. Insulin normally plays a key role in helping sugar (glucose) - a major source of energy for your muscles and other tissues - enter your cells. Without enough insulin, your body begins to break down fat as fuel. This process produces a build-up of acids in the bloodstream called ketones, eventually leading to diabetic ketoacidosis if untreated.
Diabetic ketoacidosis is an emergency and requires urgent medical attention, often in and intensive care setting. The goal of treatment is to correct the elevated blood glucose level by giving additional insulin and to replace fluids and electrolytes lost through excessive urination and vomiting. You will require close monitoring including regular finger prick glucose measurements, vital observations, fluid charts, blood tests and ECG monitoring. You may need a catheter into the bladder to measure urine output accurately. Monitoring is essential as there is a very fine balance between the fluid and electrolyte levels in your body.
A blood sugar reading of 11 mmol/l or more is a sign that you're at risk of diabetic ketoacidosis and should check your ketone level if you feel ill. A ketone level reading of 2+ or more on urine strips or 0.6 mmol/l or more in your blood is a sign that you need to take immediate action to correct your levels.Adjusting your insulin dose as advised by your diabetes care team will often correct your blood sugar and ketone levels, preventing diabetic ketoacidosis. Seeking medical advice if levels remain high after taking insulin.
The estimate of the actual number of diabetics in India is around 40 million. The prevalence of IGT is thought to be around 8.7 per cent in urban areas and 7.9 per cent in rural areas, although this estimate may be too high. It is thought that around 35 per cent of IGT sufferers go on to develop type 2 diabetes, so India is genuinely facing a healthcare crisis.