Edema is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interstitium, located beneath the skin and in the cavities of the body which cause severe pain. Clinically, edema manifests as swelling; the amount of interstitial fluid is determined by the balance of fluid homeostasis, and the increased secretion of fluid into the interstitium, or the impaired removal of the fluid can cause edema. Peripheral edema is edema (accumulation of fluid causing swelling) in tissues perfused by the peripheral vascular system, usually in the lower limbs. In the most dependent parts of the body (those hanging distally), it may be called dependent edema. The condition is commonly associated with aging, but can be caused by many other conditions, including congestive heart failure, trauma, alcoholism, altitude sickness, pregnancy, hypertension, sickle cell anemia, or merely long periods of time sitting or standing without moving.
Some medicines (e.g. amlodipine, pregabalin) may also cause or worsen the condition. Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, faintness, and in severe cases, seizures and coma. If brain herniation occurs, respiratory symptoms or respiratory arrest can also occur due to compression of the respiratory centers in the pons and medulla oblongata. No outcomes found in India.
The prevalence of DME among US diabetics approaches 30% in adults who have had diabetes for 20 years or more and varies with the stage of diabetic retinopathy. It can occur at any stage of diabetes and can predate the appearance of other findings of diabetic retinopathy. In eyes with mild nonproliferative retinopathy, the prevalence of DME is 3%. This rises to 38% in eyes with moderate to severe nonproliferative retinopathy, and reaches 71% in eyes with proliferative retinopathy. Untreated, 20% to 30% of patients with DME will experience a doubling of the visual angle within 3 years; with current treatment, this risk drops by 50%.