Endocarditis is an inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium. It usually involves the heart valves. Other structures that may be involved include the interventricular septum, the chordae tendineae, the mural endocardium, or the surfaces of intracardiac devices. Endocarditis is characterized by lesions, known as vegetations, which is a mass of platelets, fibrin, microcolonies of microorganisms, and scant in?ammatory cells.In the subacute form of infective endocarditis, the vegetation may also include a center of granulomatous tissue, which may fibrose or calcify. Endocarditis is an infection of the inner lining of your heart (endocardium). Endocarditis generally occurs when bacteria or other germs from another part of your body, such as your mouth, spread through your bloodstream and attach to damaged areas in your heart. Left untreated, endocarditis can damage or destroy your heart valves and can lead to life-threatening complications.
Treatments for endocarditis include antibiotics and, in certain cases, surgery. Endocarditis is uncommon in people with healthy hearts. People at greatest risk of endocarditis have damaged heart valves, artificial heart valves or other heart defects. The initial symptoms of endocarditis are similar to the flu and include: a high fever (101.4oF), chills, headache, joint and muscle pain. Endocarditis may develop slowly or suddenly depends on the cause of the infection and whether you have any underlying heart problems. Endocarditis signs and symptoms vary, but may include: Fever and chills, A new heart sound made by blood rushing through your heart, Fatigue, Aching joints and muscles, Night sweats, Shortness of breath, Paleness, Persistent cough, Swelling in your feet, legs or abdomen, Unexplained weight loss, Blood in your urine (either visible or found in a doctor's viewing of your urine under a microscope), Tenderness in your spleen is an infection-fighting abdominal organ on your left side, just below your rib cage, Osler's nodes are red and tender spots under the skin of your fingers, Petechiae is a tiny purple or red spots on the skin, whites of your eyes or inside your mouth. In India, the 2009 incidence of IE was approximately 12.7 cases per 100,000 persons per year.
The age-adjusted hospital admission rate has increased 2.4% annually from 1998-2009. This rate has risen significantly from that of the previous 50 years (2-4 cases per 100,000 persons per year). The incidence of IE in other countries is similar to that in the United States. From 1998-2009, the proportion of patients with intracardiac devices increased from 13.3% to 18.9%, while the proportion of cases with a background of HIV infection or HIV drug abuse fell.