Pathophysiology: Leptospirosis is a type of bacterial infection spread by animals. It's caused by a strain of bacteria called leptospira. Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease that affects both humans and animals. The early stages of the disease may include high fever, severe headache, muscle pain, chills, redness in the eyes, abdominal pain, jaundice, haemorrhages in skin and mucous membranes (including pulmonary bleeding), vomiting, diarrhoea and a rash. Leptospiral infection in humans causes a range of symptoms, and some infected persons may have no symptoms at all.
Treatment: Effective antibiotics include penicillin G, ampicillin, amoxicillin and Doxycycline. In more severe cases cefotaxime or ceftriaxone should be preferred.Glucose and salt solution infusions may be administered; dialysis is used in serious cases. Elevations of serum potassium are common and if the potassium level gets too high special measures must be taken. Serum phosphorus levels may likewise increase to unacceptable levels due to renal failure.
Statistics: During 1984 to 1985, acute renal failure due to leptospirosis in 19 human patients was reported in Madras. In 1988, during the peak of the monsoon season, serum and urine samples from 40 patients, with a history of fever, vomiting, jaundice, abdominal pain and renal failure, from various hospitals in Madras city and MAT revealed that 33 (82.5%) had specific leptospiral antibodies, with titres ranging from 1:160 to 1:6400 against different serovars.