Cancer related to blood cells is called as Leukemia. Under Leukemia condition, bone marrow produces abnormal cancerous blood cells that crowd out the normal and healthy blood cells. Leukemia is of different types based which blood cell type has become cancerous. White blood cells are more to prone to become cancerous than RBCs and platelets. Leukemia can be acute or chronic and Lymphocytic or Myelogenous. It occurs most commonly in adults above 55 years and children younger than 15 years. The treatment methods used depend on the blood cell affected and whether the leukemia is acute or chronic or Lymphocytic or Myelogenous. Chemotherapy is frequently used to treat leukemia.
In India, annually >10,000 cases of childhood leukemia have been reported. ALL accounted for 60 to 85% of all childhood leukemias. Incidence of leukemia in Indian pediatric population was reported as 34%, of which 25% was ALL. In spite of the existence of national registry for child-hood leukemia, challenges such as under-reporting due to lack of awareness, under-diagnosis, and insufficient infrastructure still exist, which are contributing to the paucity of accurate data, delay in recognizing the disease on time and a late referral. This can place the child in a high risk category. Hence, improved awareness among the physicians, health care providers and general public is essential.