Research: This was a cohort study exploring whether the consumption of fruits and vegetables with high levels of pesticide residues is linked to lower semen quality. This type of study cannot prove cause and effect, as other factors could be causing any effects seen. However, in studies of this type, researchers try to take account of other factors that can affect a health outcome. In this case, for example, male fertility is known to be affected by lifestyle factors such as smoking and weight, which were taken into account in the statistical analyses.
Chromosome analysis of 78 infertile males showed major chromosome abnormalities in 10.2%, with 6.4% in autosomal chromosome abnormalities and 3.8% in sex chromosome abnormalities. The incidence of major chromosome abnormalities in oligospermic males were 21% and azoospermic males were 15.4 %. Chromosomal polymorphic variants were identified to be 16.7%. Combining the data from other published studies identified 153/ 1814 (8.4%) infertile men of chromosomal abnormalities; with 10.8% in azoospermia, 7.3% in oligospermia and 7.3% in oligoasthenoteratospermic from India.