Pathophysiology: Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) is TB that does not respond to at least isoniazid and rifampicin, the two most powerful anti-TB drugs. it is becoming increasingly difficult to treat MDR-TB. Treatment options are limited and expensive recommended medicines are not always available, and patients experience many adverse effects from the drugs. In some cases even more severe drug-resistant TB may develop.
Statistics: Incidence of tuberculosis is the estimated highest number of new and relapse tuberculosis cases arising in a given year, expressed as the rate per 100,000 population. All forms of TB are included, including cases in people living with HIV. In India the incidence of Tuberculosis reported higher from 2001-2005 is 180 cases, and from 2006-2015 is cases varied from 171-176.
Treatment: The principles of treatment for MDR-TB and for XDR-TB are the same. Treatment requires extensive chemotherapy for up to two years. Second-line drugs are more toxic than the standard anti-TB regimen and can cause a range of serious side-effects including hepatitis, depression, hallucinations, and deafness. Patients are often hospitalized for long periods, in isolation. In addition, second-line drugs are extremely expensive compared with the cost of drugs for standard TB treatment.
A next-generation cartridge called Xpert Ultra® is also in development. It is intended to replace the Xpert MTB/RIF cartridge and could potentially replace conventional culture as the primary diagnostic tool for TB.