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Nicotine Dependence

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  • Nicotine dependence

    Addiction is defined as repeated use of a psychoactive substance or substances, to the extent. Nicotine addiction is the fundamental reason that individuals persist in using tobacco products, and this persistent tobacco use contributes to many diseases. A Inhalation of nicotine in the form of smoke provides the quickest delivery, with nicotine reaching the brain in approximately 7 seconds. Nicotine stimulates the dopaminergic pathways of the mesolimbic system in the brain, an area that is involved in reinforcement for other drugs of abuse. Nicotine binds to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain (nAchRs), causing the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbensand the subsequent release of neurotransmitters, resulting in a variety of physiological effects, including behavioural arousal and neural activation.

  • Nicotine dependence

    Many treatments, including nicotine replacement therapy and non-nicotine medications, have been approved as safe and effective in treating nicotine dependence. Cross-sectional studies have provided data regarding the prevalence of tobacco use in the general population of India. The National Family Health Survey provided data from 301,984 adults in 26 Indian states during 1999. In this impressive sample, the overall prevalence was 18.4% for tobacco smoking and 21% for tobacco chewing. Compared to men, Indian women were much less likely to smoke tobacco (3.4% vs. 33.3%), chew tobacco (13% vs. 29%), and use tobacco in both forms (15.5% vs. 50.2%). Per capita consumption data suggest that beedi smoking has been steadily rising during the past several decades .

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