Disease pathophysiology: Syphilis is a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidumsubspecies pallidum. The primary route of transmission is through sexual contact; it may also be transmitted from mother to fetus during pregnancy or at birth, resulting in congenital syphilis. Other human diseases caused by related Treponema pallidum include yaws (subspecies pertenue), pinta (subspecies carateum) and bejel (subspecies endemicum). Disease Statistics: India is on the verge of eliminating syphilis, one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in the country.
According to the National Aids Control Organization (NACO), syphilis, which earlier used to affect about 8% of pregnant women, has been reduced to less than 1%. Among female sex workers, it affects about 4% as against 30% till a few years ago. There has also been a massive dip in Chancroid infections. Till a decade ago, India recorded 1.2 lakh cases of Chancroid infections that have come down to less than 3,000. Chancroid causes high numbers of genital ulcers. Around 14% of all genital ulcers were caused by Chancroid, which has since come down to less than 0.1%.
Treatment: The first choice for the treatment for syphilis is intramuscular benzathine penicillin G Doxycycline and tetracycline in alternative choice to those who are allergic to pencillins Resistance to macrolides, rifampin, and clindamycin is often present. Ceftriaxone, a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, may be as effective as penicillin-based treatment. It is recommended that a treated person avoid sex until the sores are healed. Major Research: Major research on syphilis in brazil in carried out by WHO (World Health Organisation).